Ecommerce, Unstoppable

By: Luis Eduardo Forero Medina Electronic commerce, or e-commerce, has been spreading throughout the world since the second half of the nineties of the 20th century, promoted by the United Nations Commission for International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) that issued in 1996 the Model Law on Electronic Commerce; modality that has been strengthened by the greater diffusion of high-speed internet connections, smartphones, tablets, computers, web pages that are usually saturated; applications, chats or social networks and other devices that help an absolutely new way of carrying out commercial transactions, also making it possible to pay in advance or to do so in cash at the time of delivery. In accordance with said regulatory framework and the legislative development on the subject in 74 countries, including Colombia, except for the provisions on certification and electronic signatures; The fundamental principles of this purchasing system, which has increased this year throughout the planet, are that of non-discrimination, neutrality with regard to technical means and functional equivalence. The non-discrimination consisting of the electronic format being assimilated in its legal effects to a physical document; Neutrality has to do with the acceptance of new developments that occur “without the need to undertake legislative work”, and the principle of functional equivalence, similar to that of non-discrimination, consisting of electronic communications being identified with Communications on paper. Electronic commerce is classified according to those involved, whether consumers (C), companies (B) or governments (G). Between B2B companies (business to business); B2C (business to consumer) in which companies electronically sell their goods or services to the general public; C2C (consumer to consumer) between individuals; B2G (business to government) between companies and government and C2B (consumer to business), in which consumers sell products to reseller companies. Regarding the goods and services that circulate most in e-commerce are computers, electronic products, basic necessities, ordinary consumer goods, clothing, accessories, health and beauty, travel, tickets for events and video games. The main agents of electronic commerce and digital payment systems are Amazon, Alibaba, Mercado Pago (Mercado Libre), Rappi, PayPal (eBay), PayU (DineroMail), Domicilios.com and Uber Eats, among others; that have the postal sector as a fundamental support. Mobile money and digital wallets also contribute to expanding e-commerce. There are dozens of advantages to buying online, which can be seen in the fact that potential buyers have a greater offer of goods and services; online stores with permanent availability; intermediaries are reduced, the number of buyers in supermarkets and shops is restricted, and security. On the other hand, some of the disadvantages are the lack of confidence when buying; ignorance of the language; inconvenience regarding the protection of personal data and fear of fraud; low levels of bank penetration, the preference for cash; the lack of international credit cards and the so-called Phishing, which is when “unscrupulous people pose as a financial entity, brand or control body through email, with the aim of obtaining private information such as card numbers”; and that only 40% of companies in this part of the world have their own website and one in five MSMEs, micro and small companies, does not even use e-mail as a means of communication with customers or suppliers. (Suominen (2014). The lack of universalization of the Internet is another talanquera; in Latin America where more than half of the population does not have access to this service, 8% of digital buyers are concentrated worldwide. In Colombia, the penetration rate stands at 68.2%; Peru, 72.9%; Chile, 81.9%, Paraguay, 88.4% and Venezuela, 59.6% (BBVA). The Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) perceives as other difficulties for e-commerce, on the part of the bidders, the customs barriers, labeling provisions, corruption in customs, scale limitations, lack of information, difficulties related to the enforcement of the intellectual property rights, etc. In the Degree Project “Security in electronic commerce” (Universidad Javeriana), it is maintained that “electronic commerce is threatened, the risks are potentially dangerous and dire.” The Financial Superintendency of Colombia recommends that when shopping and payments from the cell phone “you should only activate the connections by bluetooth and wifi” when it is going to be used. In Latin America more than 155 million inhabitants are digital buyers (Statista). On the first day of the days without VAT in Colombia, the growth in visitor traffic to digital platforms registered a growth of 1,700%. Electronic commerce has been a key instrument for supplying Colombian households, which is evidenced in the increase shown by the categories of sports (86.5%), retail (52.9%), health (38.2%) and technology (26.9 %), according to the Colombian Chamber of Electronic Commerce, which stated that “In the coming months it is important to take advantage of this transactional medium as a tool for economic reactivation for Colombian companies and as the ideal channel for consumers to make purchases without exposing your health. ”@ luforero4